WHAT ARE THEY?
State-of-the-art processes are relatively recent in coffee production, the objective of these processes is to create special flavor profiles or to significantly improve the profitability and quality of traditional processes. The objective of these processes is to create special flavor profiles or to significantly improve the profitability and quality of traditional processes through the use of innovative and quality of traditional processes through the use of innovative fermentation and fermentation and drying techniques.
THE FERMENTATION PROCESS
This stage occurs in complex chemical processes in which bacteria and yeasts produce enzymes that accelerate chemical reactions.
Through fermentation, the chemical composition of coffee can change drastically.
TYPES OF FERMENTATION
Air fermentation in places with oxygen with oxygenthis strengthens the creation of acetic acids.
Fermentation inside a closed tank, without oxygenThe fermentation process, without oxygen, enhances the creation of lactic and alcoholic acids and volatile aromatic compounds.
Fermentation combining aerobic and anaerobic techniques helps to create very complex acidity combinations.
Time is another important factor in fermentation, the fermentation hours are the time in which the yeast and bacteria interact with the organic matter of the coffee pulp modifying it. The longer the fermentation time, the more chemical reactions can occur and the more noticeable the change in flavor and aroma of the coffee.
The fermentations have a system of ‘sizes’ according to the time they last:
Between 12 and 23 hours
Between 24 and 48 hours
Between 48 and 71 hours
Between 72 and 95 hours
Between 96 and 119 hours
Between 120 and 143 hours
Between 144 and 168 hours
Between 169 and 299 hours
300 hours or more
In addition to conditions and time, fermentation can be influenced by many other variables to change its type, speed and intensity . The fermentation conditions can be influenced by changing the concentration of the substances, temperatures, salts…
To better control the process and obtain the desired results, we can influence the direct participants in the process by adding specific live cultures such as yeast, bacteria or fungi among others.
Different places are used for fermentation, the type of fermentation, its conditions, productivity and complexity depend on the place where the coffee is fermented, it can take place in traditional tanks or piles, watertight barrels, bags…
THE DRYING PROCESS
Drying is a very important stage in coffee production and can be simple or complementary.
The objective of the drying stage is to bring the beans uniformly to the export humidity level (around 10%), which allows the coffee to be stored and roasted in a safe and adequate manner.
The drying simple This stage is done without the objective of bringing anything more to the point, while the drying complementary in addition to moisture loss is intended to add more complexity to the grain by solving additional tasks such as prolongingr the fermentation process that le occurs to the natural process.
Drying techniques contribute to the achievement of additional tasks, such as manipulations and the use of materials that allow influencing the temperature, speed and conductivity of the drying, modifying its physical/chemical state in a controlled manner.
Among the drying techniques that can be used are:
It opaque material is used that retains moisture. The process alternates between open and closed stages. When the coffee is opened and spread evenly, normal drying occurs on the surface. In addition, periodically, the coffee is very well covered with material, as in a sleeping bag. This technique greatly increases fermentation and allows you to maintain the high density of the grain, fruity and vinous notes usually accompany this technique.
When the coffee begins to dry it is deposited in a thicker layer and each day the thickness of the layer increases, the coffee goes uphill, hence the name of this technique, a thick layer slows drying but raises the temperature and intensity of fermentation, fruity notes and acidity accompany this technique.
PLACE AND TIME OF DRYING
One of the most important factors in the drying process is time. The duration of the process will depend on the climatic conditions and the technique used. and the technique used, Each coffee and each process under specific conditions requires its own drying period.
Drying times see between 1 and 35 days.
THE RESTING PROCESS
Finally, depending on the complexity of the fermentation process, the length of the resting period will depend on the density of the grain, the denser it is and the more chemically complex it is, the longer it will take to stabilize.
The resting place should always be dark, clean, dry and cool, bags, silos… can be used and the duration can be from M – 30 days- to L – 60 days-.
The state-of-the-art processes we develop
- Cherry reception and classification according to ripeness
- Anaerobic fermentation in cherries and pulping
- Aerobic fermentation with beans covered with a ‘coffee blanket’ with twine on top
- Washed and air drying